Proteins are macro-nutriments, the basis of the food of human beings; they are the bricks of our body. A grown-up human body contains approximately 10 to 12 kilos proteins. Proteins are constituted by molecules called amino acids, among which some are essential elements of the life of cells (essential amino acids).
We can classify proteins in two big categories: animal proteins and vegetable proteins, you find below the average values in proteins for 100 grams of different food.
Animal proteins :
Red and white meat: 18 to22 gr
Fishes and shellfish: 13 to 20 gr
Fermented cheeses: 10 to 30 gr
Yoghurts and fresh cheeses: 5 to 8 gr
Egg: 6 to7 gr
Milk: 3,5 gr
Animal proteins have the advantage to contain all essential amino acids, but most of them contain as much, even more, fats than proteins and these fats are saturated. Thus if you eat 100 grams of meat, you will have 20 grams of proteins, but also 20 grams of lipids! Lipids are nutriments which contain most calories.
Vegetable proteins :
Chickpeas, split peas: 20 to 33 gr
Lentils, dry beans: 21 to 25 gr
Almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts: 15 to 20 gr
Cereal: from 10 to 15 gr
Pastas: 10 gr
Breads and melba toasts: 7 to 10 gr
A large consumption of vegetable proteins brings mostly only few lipids. As these proteins used alone, do not contain all essential amino acids, we recommend to combine 2/3 of leguminous with 1/3 of cereal and few oleaginous plants to have the balance in vegetable proteins we need. However certain vegetable proteins can be rich in carbohydrates (bread, pastas) !
On the other hand, as most of proteins are acid (in particular animal proteins, they must be consumed in reasonable proportions to maintain the acid-basal balance of the body. Certain vegetable proteins (mung bean, basmati rice, quinoa) are however alkaline.
The quantity of proteins recommended for a well-balanced food is about 50 in 80 grams a day according to our weight, our age and our physical activity.